[Collingwood fire engine at Hoddle St.], H8332
Up until 1890, fires were fought by employees of various insurance companies. A fire mark, like the one below, was attached to a building in order to identify which insurance company they belonged too.
[Ballarat fireman], H6736
In 1890, and then consolidated in 1958, the Fire Brigades Act was passed through Victorian Parliament. As a result, the Metropolitan Fire Brigade Board (MFBB) and the Country Fire Brigade Board (CFBB) were established. The MFB started in 1891 and used horses to pull the carts, hoses and reels and firemen (women were first inducted in 1988), throughout Melbourne. Street fire alarms were gradually placed on city and suburban street corners and a watch tower at Eastern Hill, which still serves as the MFB headquarters today, gave a 360 degree view over Melbourne. By 1919 the MFB was fully motorised and continued to grow and adjust to a modernising city, adopting breathing apparatus and becoming increasingly involved in road accident rescues.
[Certificate for ] The Country Fire Brigade Demonstration, Warrnambool, March 6, 7, & 8, 1894, H2009.161/19
As Victoria expanded and towns were established, volunteer country brigades were formed, the first being at Geelong in 1854. By 1888, there were 100 brigades in Victoria and in 1919 the CFBB provided motor vehicles for several brigades. Modern equipment was vital in coming years as huge fires took homes, land and lives in 1926, 1939 and 1944. As a result the Country Fire Authority (CFA) was established in December 1944. It divided Victoria into regions and appointed Regional Officers who would represent the CFA in country areas. Today the CFA have 1120 brigades and are supported by 59,000 volunteers and 1800 staff, fighting not only fires but floods.
The Library holds many resources about fire fighting in Victoria, which can be accessed in the Library, as well as many images on our website. We also have a collection of firemarks on display in the exhibition The changing face of Victoria. For more information on bushfires in Victoria, you can use our research guide.
Written by Paul Dee
Librarian, Australian History and Literature Team
Murray R, White K 1995, State of fire: a history of volunteer fire fighting and the Country Fire Authority in Victoria, Hargreen Fitzroy, Vic.
Wilde, S 1991, Life under the bells: a history of the Metropolitan Fire Brigade, Melbourne 1891-1991, Longman Cheshire, Melbourne: Longman Cheshire
Chitty, A 1921 ‘Fire insurance offices and fire marks in Australasia‘, The Victorian Historical Magazine, vol V III, no 4, pp 113-116